1. IUPAC Nomenclature, R and S Nomenclature, E and Z Isomerism
3. Hybridization, Aromaticity, Huckles Rule Reaction Mechanisms - Electrophilic, Nucleophilic, SN1, SN2, Elimination E1 E2, etc.
4. Ester hydrolysis, Aac1 Aac2... All Eight Mechanisms (Jerry march) Markovnikoves Rule, Bredts Rule, Stereoselectivity, Stereospecificity, Regioselesctivity, Chemoselectivity, Chirality, Stereochemistry, Conformations, Rearrangements, Acids and Bases.
5. Imine-enamine Tautamerism, Keto-enol Tautamerism, Pericyclic Reactions, Racemic Mixture, Resolution Methods.
6. Amino Acids Proteins, Various methods for Amino Acid Detection, Ninhydrin Test, Peptide Sequencing, Structures of Amino Acids, Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids
7. Introduction to thermal methods of analysis like TGA, DSC, DTA, etc.
8. Carbohydrates Classification, Osazone Test, Mutarotation, etc.
9. Various Heterocycles, Heterocycle synthesis, Reactions.
10. Introduction to Redox reactions
11. Spectroscopy: (basics specially): VVIMP topic.
12. NMR and C-NMR ranges from Morrison & Boyd
13. Mass, Basic concepts about various peaks M+1, Molecular Ion, Base Peak, etc. IR, Frequencies of various groups specially carbonyls, UV (finding the lamda max values)
14. Chromatography: detailed especially HPLC, HPTLC and other modern techniques and basic fundamental theory like Van Demeter Equation, Resolution, Hetp, etc.
15. Reaction kinetics, first second third and pseudo first order reactions, radiolabelling for determination of mechanism.
16. Common condensation reactions like aldol, claisen perkin, dickmenn, darzen etc.
17. Other reactions like cannizarros reaction, prins reaction, especially reactions of carbonyl compounds.
In natural products more stress should be given on phytochemistry part rather than pharmacognosy aspects but you should know about biological sources and chemical constituents.
1. Methods of extraction, isolation and characterization of natural products. Various separation techniques used for isolation of natural products.
2. Biosynthetic pathways.
3. Primary metabolites, their examples.
4. Secondary metabolites, various classes of secondary metabolites (eg. Alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, lignans, saponins, lipids, flavonoids, coumarins, etc.). Here most imp. part is chemistry of these classes.
5. Important therapeutic classes: antidiabetics, hepatoprotectives, immmunomodulators, neutraceuticals, natural products for gynaecological disorders, anti-cancer, anti-viral (mainly anti-HIV), adaptogens etc.
6. Dietary antioxidants, Marine natural products, Plant growth regulators.
7. Fischer projection formulas.
8. Biological sources of important classes of natural products. (Selected ones only)
9. Standardization of natural products, analytical pharmacognosy.
10. What is difference between natural products and pharmacognosy?
11. Some knowledge about types and preparation of ayurvedic formulatios like asava, arista etc.
Pharmacology and toxicology:
1. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacological effect, desired, undesired, toxic, adverse effects.
2. Bioavailability, bioequivalence, various factors of ADME
3. Drug metabolism: various pathways and other details.
4. Drug interactions, agonist, antagonist, partial agonist, protein binding, drug distribution, distribution volume, excretion pathways etc.
5. Mechanism of drug action, drug-receptor interaction.
6. Various adrenergic, cholinergic and other receptors
7. Detailed study of CNS pharmacology specially opiod receptors
8. Study of basis of threshold areas of work in NIPER in pharmacology dept. mentioned in brochure.
9. Diseases: study of the pharmacology of the diseases and drugs used with mode of action especially of diabetes, malaria, leishmaniasis, TB, hypertension, myocardial ischemia, inflammation, and immunomodualtion.
10. Chemotherapy and pathophysiology- knowledge of antibiotics, their mode of action and the microorganisms responsible for various common diseases.
11. Bioassay methods, various requirements. Brief knowledge of the statistical tests.
Pharmaceutics and Formulation
1. Drug delivery systems (DDS): NDDS models, osmotic pumps, various release patterns eg. Controlled release, delayed release. Sustained release etc., order of release. Oral controlled DDS, factors affecting controlled release.
2. Carriers in DDS: polymers and their classification, types, carbohydrates, surfactants, proteins, lipids, prodrugs etc.
3. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS): principles, absorption enhancers, evaluation of TDDS.
4. Parenterals: requirements, advantages, disadvantages, release pattern, route of drug delivery.
5. Drug targeting: microspheres, nanoparticles, liposomes, monoclonal antibodies, etc. and some idea on polymers used in this field.
6. Preformulation detailed.
7. Complexation, solubilization, polymerization, viscosity measurements.
8. Dosage form development- stages, implications of dosage form.
9. Additives of formulation, types, examples, advantages, disadvantages, drug excipient interaction, incompatibility, various types of incompatibilities.
10. Dosage forms: solid (tablets, capsules, pills etc), liquid (emulsion, suspension etc), sterile ( injectables), aerosols. Principles, advantages, disadvantages and problems.
11. Packaging: materials, labeling etc. Types of containers (eg. Tamper-proof containers)
12. In process controls, Product specification, documentation.
13. Compartmental modeling.
14. Bioavailability, bioequivalence studies. Methods of improvement of oral bioavailability.
15. Evaluation of formulation, principles and methods of release control in oral formulations.
1. Stability testing of pharmaceuticals, various stability tests, kinetic studies, shelf life determination, thermal stability, formulation stability.
2. Various analytical techniques
3. Tests: physical and chemical tests, limit tests, microbiological tests, biological tests, disintegration and dissolution tests.
4. Thermal techniques: DSC, DTA, TGA, etc.
5. Chromatography- detailed.
6. QA and QC: GLP, TQM, ISO system.
7. Solubility: pH, pka, surfactant HLB values, Rheology. (IMP)
8. Crystallinity, polymorphism, solvates and hydrates, crystal habits, porosity, surface area flow properties.
9. Dosage forms, Stages of dosage form development
10. Osmolality, osmolarity, osmotic pressure, conductivity,
Here biotechnology is some what different than normal biotechnological institute so not too much worry about this portion.
1. Gene expression, mutation, replication, transcription, translation, recombination, bacteriophages.
2. Fermentation: fermenters, fermentation process, its regulation, conditions, bioprocessors, various enzymes in fermentation technology. Fermentation of Antibiotics, vitamins, amino acids, hydroxy acids such as lactic acid etc.
3. Gene therapy: methods and applications.
4. Monoclonal antibodies, insulin, interferons, enkephylins, angiotensin analogues and other peptides.
5. Enzymes, types of enzymes and enzyme kinetics etc.
6. Use of microorganisms in pharmaceutical industries.
Practice of Pharmacy
Adverse Drug Reactions.
Rational drug use as well as some typical case studies in diabetes and hypertension and some case study regarding cvs and antiinffective.
Therapeutic drug monitoring.
Hospital pharmacy & Clinical research
* You should give attention to statistics in which mean, median, mode, anova, paired ttest.
* Pharmacy Act and D&C act. and knowledge about important laboratories of India and there location.
Very frequently asked question:
* Polarity of solvents for chromatography
* Rf values for better separation.
* Absorbent in reverse phase chromatography
* Partition coefficient between liquid-liquid phase
* Naming of peptides (i.e. pentapeptide, hexapeptide)
* Hetero and homo diens
* Setro of biphenyl,cyclohexane(conformations)
* Haemllet equation and saturation kinetics
* IR frequency of carbonyl compounds
* Solvents for IR and NMR
* Mechanism of action of barbiturates, pyrimethamine, co trimoxazole
* Technique for separation of isomers and racemic mixture.
* Applications of spectroscopic technique
* Gas laws (boyle charles etc)
* Polymers in pharmaceutics.
* Calculation for J value (NMR)
* Isomers of important phytopharmaceuticals and its use.
* Alpha carotene contains how many rings
* Squalene contains how many isoprene units
* Use of each 5 HT receptors
* Measurement of flow properties and its importance
* Role of excipients and stage of addition of each
* Solvents for oral use, iv use and reconstitution
* All IP standards for tablets and capsules
* Accelerated stability testing
* Applications of various mixers and dryers
* Identification of peaks in mass spectroscopy
* Surfactants its classification and HLB values for different surfactants
* Anti malarial drugs their structure, iupac, mechanism of action
* Enzymes as biomarkers in various disease state
* Protein binding of important drugs
* Vitamins: name, deficiency
* From last 2 years there are few questions of general knowledge and logical mathematical are being asked along with few English verbal.
* Be very thorough with pharmacology, organic part and stereochemistry.
* Remember all the important reactions
* 60 percent of questions are very fundamental and concept based.
* Try to answer as many questions as possible
* Awareness is must during exam as many hints to the answers will be itself present in the other questions
* Back your instincts and your fundamentals